Prevalence of Molar HYPOMINERALISATION

Molar Hypomineralisation is an extremely common condition that manifests worldwide.  All studies show a disturbingly high prevalence in 6-year molars – generally 6% or more of the otherwise healthy childhood population is affected and the average prevalence across all reports is 16% (i.e. about 1-in-6 kids).  While the majority of studies come from Europe, the prevalence is equally high elsewhere as depicted on the map below (touch the top of each pin to reveal details).

 

Most data are for 7–12 year old children who will carry the liabilities of Molar Hypomineralisation for the rest of their lives. Given this high prevalence and life-long burden, Molar Hypomineralisation clearly merits increased attention as a global concern for public health. See also the projected global incidence of Molar Hypomineralisation, which strongly reinforces our concerns.

Main Map SwedenDenmarkSpainUk New Zealand Sydney Perth Kenya india HongKong Libya Brazil Netherlands Finland germany Italy lithuania Bosnia Greece bulgaria Turkey Jordan Iraq

For further reference, the depicted prevalence studies are graphed and tabulated below. Here you can readily see the range and distribution of prevalence values. In the table, you can also see the variations, both between studies in different countries and between those within the same country. It is noteworthy that the reports extend back to 1987, at which time the prevalence reported for Sweden was similar to today's global average. Caution should be applied when making detailed comparisons because not all studies were conducted equivalently – e.g. some involve much larger datasets than others, and variations exist for the diagnostic criteria used and the population types studied. Given such
imprecision, we have rounded the reported prevalence values to whole numbers.

KEY Prevalence STUDIES
FOR Molar HYPOMINERALISATION (6-YEAR MOLARS)

Region/Country Prevalence Report
Oceania    
Australia
Perth
22% Arrow, 2008 Prevalence of developmental enamel defects of the first permanent molars among school children in Western Australia.
Sydney 44% Balmer et al, 2005 Prevalence of enamel defects and MIH in non-fluoridated and fluoridated communities.
New Zealand
Wellington
15% Mahoney & Morrison, 2009 The prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) in Wainuiomata children.
Wellington 19% Mahoney & Morrison, 2011 Further examination of the prevalence of MIH in the Wellington region.
Europe    
Sweden
Jönköping
10% Koch et al, 1987 Epidemiologic study of idiopathic enamel hypomineralization in permanent teeth of Swedish children.
Kållered & Mölndal 18% Jalevik et al 2001 The prevalence of demarcated opacities in permanent first molars in a group of Swedish children.
Malmo 16% Brogardh-Roth et al, 2011 Molar-incisor hypomineralization and oral hygiene in 10- to-12-yr-old Swedish children born preterm.
Finland
Helsinki & Kuopio
17% Alaluusua et al, 1996 Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans via mother’s milk may cause developmental defects in the child’s teeth.
Vantaa 25% Alaluusua et al, 1996 Developmental dental defects associated with long breast feeding.
Helsinki 19% Leppaniemi et al, 2001 Nonfluoride hypomineralizations in the permanent first molars and their impact on the treatment need.
Lammi, Jalasjarvi, Helsinki, Oulu, Lappeenranta 17% Wuollet et al, 2014 Background factors of molar-incisor hypomineralization in a group of Finnish children..
Netherlands
Alphen aan de Rijnland, Gouda, Breda and Den Bosch
10% Weerheijm et al, 2001 Prevalence of cheese molars in eleven-year-old Dutch children.
Alphen aan de Rijnland, Gouda, Breda, Den Bosch 15% Jasulaityte et al, 2008 Prevalence of molar-incisor-hypomineralisation among children participating in the Dutch National Epidemiological Survey (2003).
Rotterdam 9% Elfrink et al, 2012 Deciduous Molar Hypomineralization and Molar Incisor Hypomineralization.
United Kingdom
Leeds
15% Zagdwon et al, 2002 The prevalence of developmental enamel defects in permanent molars in a group of English school children.
Leeds 40% Balmer et al, 2005 Prevalence of enamel defects and MIH in non-fluoridated and fluoridated communities.
Northern England 16% Balmer et al 2012 The prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralisation in Northern England and its relationship to socioeconomic status and water fluoridation.
Germany
Dresden
6% Dietrich et al, 2003 Molar incisor hypomineralisation in a group of children and adolescents living in Dresden (Germany).
Giessen 6% Preusser et al, 2007 Prevalence and severity of molar incisor hypomineralization in a region of Germany – a brief communication.
Munich 14% Kohlboeck et al, 2013 Is there a relationship between hyperactivity/inattention symptoms and poor oral health? Results from the GINIplus and LISAplus study. 
Greifswald, Heidelberg, Dusseldorf, Hamburg 10% Petrou et al, 2014 Prevalence of Molar-Incisor-Hypomineralisation among school children in four German cities. 
Italy
Lissone
14% Calderara et al, 2005 The prevalence of Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) in a group of Italian school children.
Rome 7% Condo R et al, 2012  MIH: epidemiologic clinic study in paediatric patient.
Spain
Catalonia
18% Gomez et al, 2011 Prevalence of molar-incisor hypomineralisation observed using transillumination in a group of children from Barcelona (Spain).
Valencia 22% Garcia-Margarit et al, 2013  Epidemiologic study of molar-incisor hypomineralization in 8-year-old Spanish children.
Barcelona  18% Martinez Gomez et al, 2012 Prevalence of molar-incisor hypomineralisation observed using transillumination in a group of children from Barcelona (Spain). 
Lithuania
Kaunas
10% Jasulaityte et al 2007 Molar incisor hypomineralization: review and prevalence data from the study of primary school children in Kaunas/Lithuania.
Bosnia & Herz.
9 communities
12% Muratbegovitz et al, 2007 Molar-incisor-hypomineralisation impact on developmental defects of enamel prevalence in a low fluoridated area.
Foca 13% Jankovic et al, 2014 Distribution and characteristics of molar-incisor hypomineralization.
Bulgaria
Plovdiv
5% Kukleva et al, 2008 Molar incisor hypomineralisation in 7-to-14-year old children in Plovdiv, Bulgaria—an epidemiologic study.
Greece
Athens
10% Lygidakis et al, 2008 Molar-incisor-hypomineralisatoin (MIH). Retrospective clinical study in Greek children. I. Prevalence and defect characteristics.
Denmark
North Jutland County
38% Wogelius et al, 2008 Prevalence and distribution of demarcated opacities in permanent 1st molars and incisors in 6 to 8-year-old Danish children.
Turkey
Istanbul
15% Kusku et al, 2008 The prevalence and aetiology of molar-incisor hypomineralisation in a group of children in Istanbul.
Kocaeli & Canakkale 9% Kusku et al, 2009 The prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) in a group of children in a highly polluted urban region and a windfarm-green energy island.
Ankara 8% Sonmez et al, 2013 Putative factors associated with molar incisor hypomineralisation: an epidemiological study.
3 regions 21% Groselj & Jan, 2013 Molar incisor hypomineralisation and dental caries among children in Slovenia.
Asia    
Hong Kong 3% Cho et al, 2008 Molar incisor hypomineralization in Hong Kong Chinese children.
Iraq
Mosul City
19% Ghanim et al, 2011 Molar-incisor hypomineralisation: prevalence and defect characteristics in Iraqi children.
Jordan
Amman, Irbid, Al-Karak
18% Zawaideh et al, 2011 Molar incisor hypomineralisation: prevalence in Jordanian children and clinical characteristics.
India
Gandhinagar
9% Parikh et al, 2012 Prevalence and characteristics of Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) in the child population residing in Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India.
Chandigarh 6% Mittal et al, 2014 Molar incisor hypomineralisation: prevalence and clinical presentation in school children of the northern region of India.
Udaipur 10% Bhaskar et al, 2014 Molar-incisor hypomineralization: prevalence, severity and clinical characteristics in 8- to 13-year-old children of Udaipur, India.
Iran
Zahedan
13% Ahmadi et al, 2012 Molar incisor hypomineralization: a study of prevalence and etiology in a group of Iranian children. 
Shiraz 20% Ghanim et al, 2014 Molar-incisor hypomineralisation: a prevalence study amongst primary schoolchildren of Shiraz, Iran.
China
Wenzhou
 26% Li & Li 2012  Investigation of molar-incisor hypomineralization among children from 6 to 11 years in Lucheng District, Wenzhou City. 
Saudi Arabia
Jeddah
9% Allazzam et al, 2014 Molar incisor hypomineralization, prevalence, and etiology.
All 4 quarters 10% Ng et al, 2015 Prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) in Singaporean children.
Thailand
Muang district
28% Pitiphat et al, 2014 Factors associated with molar incisor hypomineralization in Thai children.
Kranuan district 21% Pitiphat et al, 2014 Molar incisor hypomineralization and dental caries in six- to seven-year-old Thai children.
Kavre 14% Shresthra et al, 2014 Prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralisation among school children in Kavre.
Africa    
Libya
Benghazi
3% Fteita et al, 2006 Molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH) in a group of school-aged children in Benghazi, Libya.
Kenya
Matungulu & Kangundo
14% Kemoli, 2008 Prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralisation in six to eight year-olds in two rural divisions in Kenya.
Nigeria
Ile-Ife
 18% Oyedele et al, 2015 Prevalence, pattern and severity of molar incisor hypomineralisation in 8- to 10-year-old school children in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.
Americas    
Brazil
Rio de Janeiro
40% Soviero et al, 2009 Prevalence and distribution of demarcated opacities and their sequelae in permanent 1st molars and incisors in 7 to 13-year-old Brazilian children.
Botelhos 20% Da Costa-Silva et al, 2010 Molar incisor hypomineralization: prevalence, severity and clinical consequences in Brazilian children. 
Araraquara  12% Jeremias et al, 2013 Dental caries experience and Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization
Argentina
Buenos Aires
16% Biondi et al, 2011 Prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization in the city of Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires 6% Biondi et al, 2012 Prevalence of molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH) in children seeking dental care at the Schools of Dentistry of the University of Buenos Aires (Argentina) and University of la Republica (Uruguay).
Montevideo 7% Biondi et al, 2012 Prevalence of molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH) in children seeking dental care at the Schools of Dentistry of the University of Buenos Aires (Argentina) and University of la Republica (Uruguay).
Average prevalence 16%
(over 59 studies)
 

NB: Authors – please advise us of new studies suitable for inclusion here.